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where does contact metamorphism occur

Contact metamorphism can either happen deep underground or at the Earth's surface. Contact metamorphism is the baking of country rock immediately adjacent to an intruded magma body. What type of metamorphic rock do you form in a metamorphic aureole? The extent of the transformation depends on the kiln temperature, just as the grade of metamorphic rock depends on temperature. Any type of rock—igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic—can become a metamorphic rock. Deeper in the crust (particularly in continental collision zones, e.g. Now, as we mentioned earlier, there are two types of metamorphism: contact metamorphism and regional metamorphism. Metamorphism may also take place as a result of a change in chemical environment; this may occur by transport of elements between chemically contrasting rock types (e.g., formation of calc-silicate minerals at a quartzite–marble contact) or by circulation of fluids … The hot magma alters the surrounding rocks. 26 pages. Occurs adjacent to magma bodies intruding cooler country rock. We call this process dynamic metamorphism, because it occurs as a consequence of shearing alone under metamorphic conditions, without requiring a change in temperature or pressure. Contact Metamorphism (also called thermal metamorphism) - Occurs adjacent to igneous intrusions and results from high temperatures associated with the igneous intrusion. Contact metamorphism can either happen deep underground or at the Earth's surface. What kind of rocks does contact metamorphism produce and why? There are three basic types of regional metamorphism, namely burial, ocean-ridge and the orogenic regional metamorphism. Where intrusions of magma occur at shallow levels of the crust, the zone of contact metamorphism around the intrusion is relatively narrow, sometimes only a few m (a few feet) thick, ranging up to contact metamorphic zones over 1000 m (over 3000 feet) across around larger intrusions that released more heat into the adjacent crust. During the development of mountain ranges, in response to either convergent-margin tectonics or continental collision, regions of crust are squeezed and large slices of continental crust slip along faults and move up and over other portions of the crust. Join now. Contact metamorphism occurs when local rocks are metamorphosed by the heat from an igneous intrusion, such as limestone turning to marble along the contact zone. Contact metamorphism is usually restricted to relatively shallow depths (low pressure) in the Earth because it is only at shallow depths where there will be a large contrast in temperature between the intruding magma and the surrounding country rock. The hot magma alters the surrounding rocks. Typically, such metamorphism affects a large region, so geologists also call it regional metamorphism. jedyynamuco2471 jedyynamuco2471 17 minutes ago Filipino Junior High School +25 pts. Geothermal gradients are high. Contact Metamorphism (Figs 8.3, 8.14 & 8.15): usually occurs where high temperatures are restricted to a small area, generally around the margins of an igneous intrusion. 1. To see how exhumation works, let’s look at the specific processes that contribute to bringing high-grade metamorphic rocks from below a collisional mountain range back to the surface (figure above). Contact (thermal) metamorphism occurs in a large range of temperatures caused by injection of magma and lava into the cooler country rocks of lithosphere at relatively low pressure. This would be encountered in a magmatic arc situated above a subduction zone. This process of metamorphism is called contact metamorphism because of the fact that metamorphism occurs when the rocks come in contact with the intruding magmas. Hercynides, Caledonides, etc) higher grades of metamorphism are achieved, often of mixed types; collision zones are often abundance in igneous intrusions and the accompanying contact aureoles. But at greater depths, rock is so warm that it behaves like soft plastic as shear along the fault takes place. When you stand on an outcrop of metamorphic rock, you are standing on material that once lay many kilometers beneath the surface of the Earth. Such conditions do not develop in continental crust usually, at the high pressure needed to produce blue amphibole, temperature in continental crust is also high. What conditions cause metamorphism How does metamorphism affect a rock and its from GEOL 1302 at University of Houston Potters use the same process to make jugs. Contact Metamorphism. Potters usually fire earthenware at about. Regional metamorphism includes any metamorphic process that occurs over a large region. metamorphism. As a consequence of the heat and hydrothermal fluids, the wall rock undergoes metamorphism, with the highest-grade rocks forming immediately adjacent to the pluton, where the temperatures were highest, and progressively lower-grade rocks forming farther away. Most regional metamorphism is accompanied by deformation under non-hydrostatic or differential stress conditions. Some of the changes that occur in the older rock are due simply to the heat radiated from the igneous mass and to the pressures it creates. Each type of metamorphism generates distinct rock types. 2. In fact, fired clay jugs that were used for storing wine and olive oil have been found intact in sunken Greek and Phoenician ships that have rested on the floor of the Mediterranean Sea for thousands of years! They realized that because prisms grow to be over 20 km thick, rock at the base of the prism feels high pressure (due to the weight of overburden). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Such cooling of the melt creates glass, which gives porcelain its translucent, vitreous (glassy) appearance. The Palisades sill, an igneous intrusion, produced contact . The amount of rock that is changed depends on how much magma there is producing heat. All that is needed is enough heat and/or pressure to alter the existing rock’s physical or chemical makeup without melting the rock entirely. Ask your question. Clearly, the firing of a clay pot fundamentally and permanently changes clay in a way that makes it physically different (see 1st figure a). There is contact metamorphism where a magma body enters the upper part of the crust. This is commonly associated with convergent plate boundaries and the formation of mountain ranges. Which two agents of metamorphism are at work? Textures produced by such adjustments range from breccias composed of angular, shattered rock fragments to very fine-grained, granulated or … Examples of rock exposures consisting of Precambrian metamorphic rocks. Contact metamorphism occurs anywhere that the intrusion of plutons occurs. Igneous bodies are intrude at relatively shallow depth so contact metamorphism is described as high temperature, low pressure metamorphism. Vast expanses of metamorphic rock crop out in continental shields. Blueschist is a relatively rare rock that contains an unusual blue-coloured amphibole. Contact metamorphism occurs along the margins of magma bodies, which occur in great numbers at subduction and rifting zones. These rocks were metamorphosed during a succession of Precambrian mountain-building events that led to the original growth of continents. To make a more durable material, brick makers place clay blocks in a kiln and bake (“fire”) them at high temperatures. Tweaking the beak: Retracing the bird’s beak to its dinosaur origins,... Scientists propose that vibrios have significant roles in marine organic carbon... Earthquake in Greenland triggers fatal landslide-induced tsunami. When layers of rocks come in close contact to magma, they can undergo metamorphosis into another type of rock. 1100C and stoneware (which is harder than a knife or fork) at about 1250C. The size of the aureole depends on the temperature difference between the rocks of the wall and the intrusion heat. After a sedimentary rock (an eroded igneous rock ) has suffered high levels of heat and pressure, a metamorphic rock is created. The towering cliffs in the interior of a mountain range typically reveal schist, gneiss, and quartzite (figure above a). Even after the peaks have eroded away, the record of mountain building remains in the form of a belt of metamorphic rock at the ground surface. In general, dikes have small aureoles with minimal metamorphism while thick and well-developed contact metamorphism has large ultramafic intrusions. It occurs due to high temperatures and pressures. Since the metamorphism we've just described involves not only heat but also compression and shearing, we can call it dynamothermal metamorphism. Students also viewed these Geology questions. This is a local event. This type of metamorphism, also known as thermal metamorphism, is caused by the high temperatures associated with an igneous intrusion. The heat may be sufficient to melt or even vaporize rock at the impact site, and the extreme compression of the shock wave causes quartz in rocks below the impact site to undergo a phase change and become a more compact mineral called coesite. Hydrothermal Metamorphism (Fig. CONTACT METAMORPHISM: Contact metamorphism involves existing rocks coming into contact with intense heat. Imagine a hot magma that rises from great depth beneath the Earth’s surface and intrudes into cooler rock at a shallow depth. Third, erosion takes place at the surface; weathering, landslides, river flow, and glacial flow together play the role of a giant rasp, stripping away rock at the surface and exposing rock that was once below the surface. This is commonly associated with convergent plate boundaries and the formation of mountain ranges. Heat is important in contact metamorphism, but pressure is not a key factor, so contact metamorphism produces non-foliated metamorphic rocks such as hornfels, marble, and quartzite. As sediment gets buried in a subsiding sedimentary basin, the pressure increases due to the weight of overburden, and the temperature increases due to the geothermal gradient. Contact Metamorphism occurs when magma comes in contact with an already existing body of rock. Regional metamorphism. Metamorphism occurs along a more-or-less stable geothermal gradient; the resulting metamorphic mineral assemblages are characterized by low recrystallization temperatures and an absence o… It is limited to the area of contact of rocks with the igneous body ( Fig. Contact metamorphism occurs anywhere that the intrusion of plutons occurs. 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Such magma bodies, at temperatures of around 1000°C, heat up the surrounding rock, leading to contact metamorphism (Figure 7.3.6). 2015-1-AdvancedMetamorphic-Introduction [Compatibility Mode].pdf; Louisiana State University; GEOL 7044 - Spring 2015. Plate tectonics theory provides the answer to this puzzle. Contact Metamorphism (also called thermal metamorphism) - Occurs adjacent to igneous intrusions and results from high temperatures associated with the igneous intrusion. Dynamic metamorphism takes place anywhere that faulting occurs at depth in the crust. ), geologists … And this usually happens because a magma plumes moves to the upper part of the crust. The intensity of metamorphism decreases with distance from the intrusion, until at some distance away the rock is unaltered country rock. The metamorphosed zone is known as the metamorphic aureole around an igneous rock. That is to say the creation of regionally metamorphosed rocks occurs away from a significant temperature gradient. How does metamorphic rock return to the Earth’s surface? Because this happens at relatively shallow depths, in the absence of directed pressure, the resulting rock does not normally develop foliation. What are the main factors for contact metamorphism to occur? As temperature increases with depth, both p and T contribute to metamorphism. Hot magma rises beneath the axis of mid-ocean ridges, so when cold seawater sinks through cracks down into the oceanic crust along ridges, it heats up and transforms into hydrothermal fluid. Metamorphism may occur in a number of forms, each having different results and areal extent. Any type of magma body can lead to contact metamorphism, from a thin dyke to a large stock. When layers of rocks come in close contact to magma, they can undergo metamorphosis into another type of rock. Your Answer: The geologic settings and the Other articles where Dynamic metamorphism is discussed: metamorphism: Dynamic metamorphism, or cataclasis, results mainly from mechanical deformation with little long-term temperature change. The type and intensity of the metamorphism and the width of the metamorphic aureole will depend on a number of factors, including country rock type, intrusion body temperature, and body size. In regional metamorphism. Thus, mylonites can be found at all plate boundaries, in rifts, and in collision zones. Because this metamorphism takes place without application of compression or shear, aureoles contain hornfels, a nonfoliated metamorphic rock. The zone of altered rock around a batholith is called an aureole and it may cover more … Eventually, the fluid escapes through vents back into the sea; these vents are called black smokers. intensely … Rocks are " baked" into a ceramic from heat escaping from intrusives, often enhanced by hydrothermal fluids. Underground, hot magma, fills areas within the crust; large areas are called batholiths. The area affected by the contact of magma is usually small, from 1 to 10 kilometers. At depths greater than about 8 to 15 km, depending on the geothermal gradient, temperatures may be great enough for metamorphic reactions to begin, and low-grade metamorphic rocks form. Any type of magma body, from a thin dyke to a large stock, can lead to metamorphism in contact. To produce porcelain fine china the clay must partially melt at even higher temperatures up to 1400C. The area surrounding the intrusion where the contact metamorphism effects are present is called the metamorphic aureole. The type and intensity of the metamorphism, and width of the metamorphic aureolethat develops around the magma body, will depe… See more. Metamorphic contact rocks, also known as horns, are often fine-grained and do not show signs of strong deformation. Contact metamorphism happens when a body of magma intrudes into the upper part of the crust. Contact metamorphism is caused by igneous intrusions as a result of the thermal effects of hot magma on the surrounding cooler country rock. Horizontal stretching of the upper part of the crust causes it to become thinner in the vertical direction, and as the upper part of the crust becomes thinner, the deeper crust ends up closer to the surface. Metamorphism due only to the consequences of very deep burial is called burial metamorphism. Ions are brought in by water from outside the immediate environment and are incorporated into the newly crystallizing mineral YOU … View Answer. Contact metamorphism definition, localized metamorphism resulting from the heat of an igneous intrusion. Where does metamorphism occur? Underground, hot magma, fills areas within the crust; large areas are called batholiths. Log in. Contact Metamorphism – Contact metamorphism occurs adjacent to igneous intrusions and results from high temperatures associated with the igneous intrusion. Resulting rocks have equidimensional grains because of a lack of stress and are usually fine-grained due to the short duration of metamorphism. Contact metamorphic rocks are usually known as hornfels. In metamorphism. This will enable the heat to spread further into the country rock, creating a larger aureole. What are the conditions under which metamorphism occurs? Here, the red dot (representing metamorphic rocks formed at the base of a mountain range) gets progressively closer to the surface over time. In the context of plate tectonics theory, plutons intrude into the crust at convergent plate boundaries, in rifts, and during the mountain building that takes place where continents collide. The width of an aureole depends on the size and shape of the intrusion, and on the amount of hydrothermal circulation larger intrusions produce wider aureoles. Burial metamorphism mostly affects sedimentary strata in sedimentary basins as a result of compaction due to burial of sediments by overlying sediments. contact metamorphism synonyms, contact metamorphism pronunciation, contact metamorphism translation, English dictionary definition of contact metamorphism. Contact metamorphism is a type of metamorphism that occurs adjacent to intrusive igneous rocks due to temperature increases resulting from hot magma intrusion into the rock. This fluid then rises through the crust, near the ridge, causing hydrothermal metamorphism of ocean-floor basalt (figure above d). 7.4 Regional Metamorphism As described above, regional metamorphism occurs when rocks are buried deep in the crust. Textures produced by such adjustments range from breccias composed of angular, shattered rock fragments to very fine-grained, granulated or powdered rocks with obvious foliation and lineation. Contact metamorphism definition, localized metamorphism resulting from the heat of an igneous intrusion. Heat flows from the magma into the wall rock, for heat always flows from hotter to colder materials. Also, since … The changes in rock due to the passage of a shock wave are called shock metamorphism. Faults are surfaces on which one piece of crust slides, or shears, past another. Contact Metamorphism is a common type of thermal metamorphism observed in rocks existing close to the magmatic intrusions, injections and lava flows. You will see that the conditions under which metamorphism occurs are not the same in all geologic settings. Contact metamorphism is metamorphism specifically associated with igneous intrusions: The country rock is metamorphosed by the heat and fluids emanating from the cooling magmatic body. People in arid climates make adobe bricks by forming damp clay into blocks, which they then dry in the sun. Metamorphism does occur when rocks come in contact with magma but it is very localised. Typically, a regionally metamorphosed area is situated under a fold/thrust mountain range or along a boundary between tectonic plates. Because of the wide range of possible metamorphic environments, metamorphism occurs at a wide range of conditions in the Earth. Contact metamorphism happens when a body of magma intrudes into the upper part of the crust. Refer back to Fig. Yes, wikipedia page for muscovite tells: Muscovite is the most common mica, found in granites, pegmatites, gneisses, and schists, and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz, feldspar, kyanite, etc. Because this happens at relatively shallow depths, in the absence of directed pressure, the resulting rock does not normally develop foliation. Ancient reefs preserved tropical marine biodiversity. It will convert mudrock or volcanic rock into horns. In addition, hydrothermal fluids circulate through both the intrusion and the wall rock. In geology, it refers to rocks that change their type or form under certain situations. The amount of rock that is changed depends on how much magma there is producing heat. Contact metamorphism occurs when the country rock is affected by heat from an intrusion. With this background, let’s now examine the geologic settings on Earth where metamorphism takes place, as viewed from the perspective of plate tectonics theory. This process makes the bricks hard and impervious to water. Near which kind of igneous rock body would contact metamorphism be the most pronounced? Typically, metamorphic contact aureoles are quite small, ranging from a few centimeters around small dykes and sills to as much as 100 meters around a large stock. Let's start by discussing contact metamorphism, which is the one we introduced with the marshmallow experiment. Near the Earth’s surface (in the upper 10 to 15 km) this movement can fracture rock, breaking it into angular fragments or even crushing it to a powder. Source: Muscovite, Wikipedia. It may occur in diverse tectonic settings such as in orogenic or anorogenic environments, in plate interiors or along plate margins. For example, mudstones are buried to become shales, however if the pressure of overlying sediment is enough, it will develop a slaty cleavage and become slate, this is a type of very low grade pressure metamorphism. Metamorphism occurs within the crust everywhere on earth, even if it is not noticeable. Because burial to 10 km to 20 km is required, the areas affected tend to be large. The heat of the magma bakes the surrounding rocks causing them to change. The resulting rock, a mylonite, has a foliation that roughly parallels the fault (figure above b). Since only a small area surrounding the intrusion is heated by the magma, metamorphism is restricted to a zone surrounding the intrusion, called a metamorphic aureole. Describe contact metamorphism Where does it occur What type of geothermal; University of Houston; GEOL 1330 - Fall 2014. chapter 8 Physical Geology Study Guide. In what tectonic environment(s) does contact metamorphism occur? Contact metamorphism occurs in the " country rock" (the rock intruded by and surrounding an igneous intrusion). Contact Metamorphism: Contact metamorphism takes place when the mineral composition of the surrounding rocks known as aureoles is changed due to intense heat of the intruding magmas. Contact metamorphism occurs typically around intrusive igneous rocks as a result of the temperature increase caused by the intrusion of magma into cooler country rock. Where does contact metamorphism occur Where does contact metamorphism occur? Also important is the nature of country rock. A brick for the wall of an adobe house, an earthenware pot, a stoneware bowl, or a translucent porcelain teacup may all be formed from the same lump of soft clay, scooped from the surface of the Earth and shaped by human hands. Where does contact metamorphism occur? This is commonly associated with convergent plate boundaries and the formation of mountain ranges. Contact metamorphism is metamorphism specifically associated with igneous intrusions: The country rock is metamorphosed by the heat and fluids … Regional metamorphism, or dynamothermal metamorphism, generally occurs over large areas. As a result of this collapse, the upper crust spreads out laterally. Regional metamorphism and contact metamorphism both occur when quantities of rock are subjected to high heat and pressure during mountain building, but regional metamorphism affects over a greater area. An example of contact metamorphism is the metamorphic rock marble. The local metamorphism caused by igneous intrusion can be called either thermal metamorphism (see Pottery Making—An Analog  for Thermal Metamorphism), to emphasize that it develops in response to heat without a change in pressure and without differential stress, or contact metamorphism, to emphasize that it develops adjacent to the contact of an intrusion with its wall rock. Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form". Regional metamorphism occurs when rocks are buried deep in the crust. Contact Metamorphism (Figs 8.3, 8.14 & 8.15): usually occurs where high temperatures are restricted to a small area, generally around the margins of an igneous intrusion. Contact metamorphism is thus primarily a thermal phenomenon. The metamorphosed zone is known as the metamorphic aureole around an igneous rock. Most regional metamorphism takes place within continental crust. There are several types of metamorphism. Join now. KEY TERMS. Contact processes work by raising the local temperature and producing hornfels. High temperatures lead to recrystallised, unfoliated rocks in … Define contact metamorphism. Contact metamorphism occurs when local rocks are metamorphosed by the heat from an igneous intrusion, such as limestone turning to marble along the contact zone. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. Because the volume affected is small, the pressure is near constant. A large intrusion will contain more thermal energy and cool much slower than a small one, thus providing metamorphism with a longer time and more heat. Start studying Metamorphic Rocks. Regional metamorphism, as its name suggests, works over much larger areas. The distinct belt of metamorphic rock that forms around an igneous intrusion is called a metamorphic aureole or contact aureole (figure above a). Because burial to 10 km to 20 km is required, the areas affected tend to be large. The cooler rocks do not melt, but recrystallize as a result of heating. contact metamorphism synonyms, contact metamorphism pronunciation, contact metamorphism translation, English dictionary definition of contact metamorphism. Such bricks can be used for construction only in arid climates, because if it rains heavily, the bricks will rehydrate and turn back into sticky muck drying clay in the sun does not change the structure of the clay minerals. Contact metamorphism occurs primarily as a consequence of increases in temperature when differential stress is minor. Changes like this occur in different tectonic regimes and does not require substantial changes. It is therefore the most widespread and common type of metamorphism. 7.4 Regional Metamorphism As described above, regional metamorphism occurs when rocks are buried deep in the crust. The type of foliated rock that forms depends on the grade of metamorphism slate forms at shallower depths, whereas schist and gneiss form at greater depths. Eventually, the range starts to collapse under its own weight, much like a block of soft cheese placed in the hot sun. Contact metamorphism is the name given to the changes that take place when magma is injected into the surrounding solid rock (country rock).The changes that occur are greatest wherever the magma comes into contact with the rock because the temperatures are highest at this boundary and decrease with distance from it. Regional metamorphism takes place away from rising magma (which would be contact metamorphism), which is why it's more common. In other words, firing causes a thermal metamorphic change in the mineral assemblage that composes pottery. Hence it would most likley occur in regions of magmatic activity. Dynamic metamorphism, or cataclasis, results mainly from mechanical deformation with little long-term temperature change. Contact metamorphism, or thermal metamorphism, occurs when heat from igneous intrusions, melted rocks that move upward, come in contact with cooler rocks above. This produces rocks that are usually more foliated (like gneiss or schist). Contact metamorphismis a type of metamorphism where rock minerals and texture are changed, mainly by heat, due to contact with magma. 8.3): typically occurs along mid-ocean ridge spreading centers where heated seawater percolates through hot, fractured basalt. As a consequence, rock that was once near the Earth’s surface along the margin of a continent ends up at great depth beneath the mountain range (figure above c). Limestone will be transformed into marble and quartzite into sandstone. Some of the changes that occur in the older rock are due simply to the heat radiated from the igneous mass and to the pressures it creates. Researchers found that blueschist occurs only in the accretionary prisms that form at subduction zones. Processes that bring metamorphic rock back to Earth’s surface. A shield is a broad region of long-lived, stable continental crust where Phanerozoic sedimentary cover either was not deposited or has been eroded away so that Precambrian rocks are exposed (figure above b, c). 1. This pliable and slimy muck is a mixture of very fine clay minerals and quartz grains formed during the chemical weathering of rock and water. As a consequence, the magma cools and solidifies while the wall rock heats up. Where does contact metamorphism occur? Metamorphism is taken from a Greek term that literally means changing or transforming. Because burial to 10 km to 20 km is required, the areas affected tend to be large. 6.9 ) and that is why it is called contact metamorphism . Contact metamorphism can occur over a wide range of temperatures— from about 300 ° C to over 800 ° C — and, of course, the type of metamorphism and the formation of new minerals will vary. Contact metamorphism occurs in the vicinity of an igneous intrusive rock as a result of thermal effects of the hot magma. See more. Second, as the mountain range grows, the crust at depth beneath it warms up and becomes softer and weaker. Define contact metamorphism. Rocks change during metamorphism because the minerals need to be stable under the new temperature and pressure conditions. The changes due to contact metamorphism are relatively small and are said to be low-grade metamorphism. Local Metamorphism . Such belts may be hundreds of kilometres wide and thousands of kilometres long. Geothermal gradients are high. During this process, the minerals in the rock recrystallize. Fine potter’s clay for making white china contains a particular clay mineral called kaolinite, named after the locality in China (called Kauling, meaning high ridge) where it was originally discovered. Contact metamorphism is a static thermal metamorphism in the vicinity of hot intrusive igneous bodies, and metamorphic rock is formed within the zone of contact metamorphism—contact aureole (Figure 8-1).

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